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New sensor models will enable autonomous vehicles to perceive the road ahead more clearly

October 8, 2018



More accurate modelling of radar, LiDAR and ultrasound sensors in simulation will enable better validation before use on public roads


Leamington Spa, UK, 8th October 2018 … Claytex, the international consultancy specialising in modelling and simulation, headquartered in the UK, is developing a new generation of sensor models to improve the validation of autonomous vehicle (AV) systems. The new models will help eliminate tragic accidents such as the recent fatality involving an Uber AV and a pedestrian pushing a bicycle in Arizona. One of the contributory factors to that event was failure of the AV’s sensors to correctly identify the obstacle ahead.


“The artificial intelligence (AI) in an AV learns by experience, so must be exposed to many thousands of possible scenarios in order to develop the correct responses. It would be unsafe and impractical to achieve this only through physical testing at a proving ground because of the timescales required,” explains Mike Dempsey, Managing Director, Claytex. “Instead a process of virtual testing in a simulated environment offers the scope to test many more interactions, more quickly and repeatably, before an AV is used on the public highway.”


The challenge has been to ensure that virtual testing is truly representative, and that the AV will respond the same on the road as it did in simulation. Just as a driving simulator must immerse the driver in a convincing virtual reality, the sensor models used to test an AV must accurately reproduce the signals communicated by real sensors in real situations.

“We are initially developing a suite of generic, ideal sensor models for radar, LiDAR and ultrasound sensors, using software from rFpro, with a more extensive library to follow,” says Dempsey. “rFpro has developed solutions for a number of technical limitations that have constrained sensor modelling until now, including new approaches to rendering, beam divergence, sensor motion and camera lens distortion.”


rFpro software renders images using physical modelling techniques, the laws of physics, rather than the computationally efficient special effects developed for the gaming and film industries. This means that rFpro images don't just convince human viewers, they are also suitable for use with machine vision systems that must be fed sensor data that correlates closely with the real-world.


Physical modelling also obeys conservation of energy principles.  When a LiDAR sensor model projects a pulse of energy into the scene, the return signals will never have more energy than the original. Traditional rendering techniques developed for the gaming industry often result in rendering that defies this constraint, making it impossible to achieve good correlation with real-world sensors.


rFpro also solves the beam divergence problem that afflicts almost all ray tracing systems. These work by sampling thousands of individual rays of light as they travel through the scene, requiring a trade-off between performance and quality.  rFpro samples each point as a truncated cone that matches the shape of each LiDAR pulse, allowing everything that the beam strikes to be sampled, not just the individual rays selected.


As an autonomous vehicle travels along the road every bump, road repair and undulation has an affect on what the vehicle’s LiDAR sensor detects. Because rFpro uses very high quality surface definition – around 1mm in height and position – the effect of sensors moving through any particular scenario are easily captured and accommodated.

Claytex has found camera modelling to be very powerful in rFpro because the software supports different lens calibration models, allowing each customer to be supported without requiring them to change their preferred calibration methods. This includes calibration for lens distortion, chromatic aberration and support for wide angle cameras with up to a 360 degree field of view.


Even the weather conditions can be varied to reflect regional or seasonal changes. rFpro can adjust the lighting conditions of the simulation to match the angle and brightness of the sun at different times of day or different latitudes, reflections from a wet road surface and all weather types including snow and heavy rain. Experiments can therefore be run repeatedly, under different conditions, to ensure that sensor models are exercised in a wide variety of conditions.

“We have been really impressed with the results Claytex have achieved using our products,” says Chris Hoyle, Technical Director, rFpro. “We have also been pleased to have such a knowledgeable partner pushing us hard for new features, as that helps steer our future R and D in a direction that will benefit all our customers.”


Richard Doherty 
+44(0)1295 277050


About Claytex

Claytex is an engineering consultancy specialised in Systems Engineering. Our core competency is in the modelling, simulation and analysis of complex multi-domain systems, such as road and off-road vehicles, aircraft and marine vessels, using Dymola and rFpro.


As partners for both Dassault Systemes and rFpro, Claytex distributes the software that they develop and builds on these to deliver a comprehensive suite of solutions for Automotive and Motorsport customers.  These solutions enable all aspects of a vehicle to be modelled, simulated and tested in a virtual environment and include support for testing ADAS and autonomous vehicles. The virtual test environments allow the vehicle model, it’s sensors and control systems to be fully immersed into a virtual world. Website:


About rFpro


rFpro provides driving simulation software, and 3D content, for Deep Learning Autonomous Driving, ADAS and Vehicle Dynamics testing and validation. rFpro is being used to train, test and validate Deep Learning systems for ADAS and Autonomous applications by OEMs and Tier-1s. When developing systems based on machine learning from sensor feeds, such as camera, LiDAR and radar feeds, the quality of the 3D environment model is very important. The more accurate the virtual world is the greater the correlation will be when progressing to real-world testing. rFpro’s HiDef models are built around a graphics engine that includes a physically modelled atmosphere, weather and lighting, as well as physically modelled materials for every object in the scene. 100s of kilometers of public road models are available off-the-shelf, from rFpro, spanning North America, Asia and Europe, including multi-lane highways, urban, rural, mountain routes, all copied faithfully from the real world. rFpro scales from a desktop workstation to a massively parallel real-time test environment connecting to customers' autonomous driver models and human test drivers.


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